Gerunds and infinitives




  
A gerund is a noun, but a present participle is a verb.
  1. Gerund:

    A gerund is the Ėing form of the verb. It is used as a noun. A gerund is used in the same way as a noun: as a subject or an object. The Ėing form of the verb can be: The present participle (used in the present progressive). I am writing. (Present participle) The gerund (used as the subject or the object of a verb) Playing makes him happy. (Playing: subject) I enjoy reading. (Reading: object) I enjoy doing something (Doing something: gerund phrase)
  2. Using gerunds as objects of prepositions:

    The gerund is frequently used as the object of the preposition. He insisted on coming with us. He is excited about going with us. She apologized for being late. He is interested in learning German. He is used to telling stories. A preposition is followed by a gerund, not an infinitive.
  3. Using by and with to express how something is done:

    He turned on his computer by pushing the button: By + gerund She traveled by bus: By + noun. They cut meat with a knife: With + noun By + gerund is used to express how something is done. By or with + noun is also used to express how something is done. By is used for means of transportation and communication: By air (plane), by boat, by bus, by car, by subway, by taxi, by train, by foot = on foot, by mail, by (tele)phone, by special delivery, by land, by sea, By chance, by choice, by mistake, By check, in cash By hand = made by a person, not by a machine. With my hand: with a part of a body. With is used for instruments or parts of the body. With = by using.
  4. Verb + gerund:

    Common verbs followed by gerunds: Postpone - enjoy - finish - stop - quit - give up - mind - delay - postpone - put off - keep - keep on - consider - think about - discuss - talk about - appreciate - Negative form: not + gerund. I considered not going to this market. Common expressions with GO + - ING: Go is followed by a gerund in certain idiomatic expressions about activities. Go booting - go bowling - go camping - go dancing - go fishing - go hiking - go jogging - go running - go sailing - go shopping - go sightseeing - go skating - go skiing - go skydiving - go swimming, Did you go swimming? I went shopping. She hasnít gone studying.
  5. Verb + Infinitive:

    Infinitives: I want something. Something = noun = object of the verb I want to do something. To do: Infinitive = object of the verb To do something: infinitive phrase. Negative form: not + infinitive. I have decided not to go to this market. Common verbs followed by infinitives: Verbs followed immediately by an infinitive: Hope -promise - decide - agree - offer - refuse - forget - remember - seem - appear - ask - expect - want - need. Would like - would love - plan - intend - mean - pretend - learn (how) - try - canít afford - canít wait - Ö Verbs followed by a noun/pronoun and then an infinitive, or immediately by an infinitive when they are used in the passive. Tell - remind - advise - encourage - warn - permit - allow - require - force - order - ask - expect - want - need. Some verbs may or may not be followed by a pronoun/ noun object: Ask - expect - want - need. I want to finish this work. I want him to come right now.
  6. Verb + Gerund or Infinitive:

    Some verbs are followed by either gerunds or infinitives. I like to travel = I like traveling I continue to search = I continue searching Common verbs followed by either an infinitive or a gerund: Begin - start - continue - like - prefer - intend - love - hate - canít stand - try. But: would like & would love are followed by infinitive only
  7. Using Advise and remember/Forget

    If there is no pronoun/noun object after advise, a gerund is used. She advised me to call her. She advised calling her. A gerund is used after remember when the speaker recalls something that happened in the past. He remembers driving his first car when he was sixteen-years-old. A gerund is used after forget when the speaker is referring to a past action. He didnít forget to go to school. He didnít forget going to school.
  8. Using gerunds and infinitive as subjects. Using It + Infinitive:

    Reading this book is fun. Reading = The subject of the sentence The gerund is always singular. It is fun to read this book. It and to read this book refer to the same meanings. Itís less common to use an infinitive as the subject of a sentence: To read books is fun. It is fun to read this book. An infinitive is more commonly used with it. It is fun reading this book (informal) It + Infinitive: using (FOR someone): It is + adjective + for (someone) + infinitive. You have to wake up early in the morning. Itís necessary for you to wake up early in the morning.
  9. Using Infinitives with TOO & ENOUGH:

    The weather is too cold for him to go outside. Too + adjective (for someone) + infinitive. In the speakerís mind, the use of too implies a negative result. Too difficult = impossible for Ö to do Ö Very difficult = It is possible but difficult. She doesnít have enough time to go dancing. Enough can precede a noun. She doesnít have time enough to go dancing. Enough can follow a noun. He is not reliable enough to give a trust. Enough follows an adjective. Enough + noun (or noun + enough) + infinitive Adjective + enough + infinitive.
  10. Uncompleted Infinitive:

    I want to buy a new car. But I canít afford to. Canít afford to = uncompleted infinitive. I couldnít stay. I didnít have to. When the meaning is clearly understood, an infinitive phrase is not completed following TO. Uncompleted infinitive are also common with these auxiliaries: Have to, be going to, used to and ought to.
  11. Infinitive of purpose: Using In order to:

    I go to school because I want to learn English. I go to school in order to learn English. I go to school to learn English. (In order to is omitted: the meaning is the same) In order to: expresses the purpose. In order to: answers the question: Why? For: can be followed by a gerund. But in the case of purpose, it is followed by a noun phrase. I write down to remember. I write down for knowledge.
  12. Verbs of perception:

    He can see her run quickly. He can see her running quickly. The -ing form of the verb which refers to present participle (Not a gerund) and gives the idea of ďwhileĒ Either the simple form or the -ing form of the verb follows certain verbs of perception. Common verbs used in this pattern: Watch - see - notice - look at - observe - hear - listen to - feel. Notice is stronger than see. Watch is longer than look at. Observe = watching and analyzing. Listen is a conscious act. But hear happens by chance.
  13. Using causative verbs: let - make and have:

    They are followed by the simple form of the verb. (Not an infinitive) She let her daughter read her book. She made her daughter read her book. She had her daughter read her book. (The meanings are not the same) Let: Let me see. Let = permit Make: Make somebody do something gives the idea that there are no choice, no alternatives. He made his daughter make her bed. Make someone + adjective gives the same idea (no chance) She makes him laugh. He makes her happy. Have: Have somebody do something. He had the mechanic repair his car. Have something done. He had his car repaired. (Passive meaning)
  14. Using help and get:

    Help: Help is also followed by the simple form of the verb. An infinitive is also possible. They helped him find the right street. They helped him to find the right street. Get: Get someone to do something has the same meaning than have somebody do something. He got his friend to repair his computer. He had his friend repair his computer.
  15. Special expressions followed by the -ing form of the verb:

    Have fun dancing Have a good time reading Have trouble writing Have difficulty speaking Have hard time learning Have a difficult time listening the news. Spend + expression of time +-ing She spends two hours waiting for him. Sit/ stand/ lie + expression of place + -ing He stood there staring at her.
  16. Verbs followed by gerunds:

    admit - advise - anticipate - appreciate - avoid - complete - consider -delay - deny - discuss - enjoy - finish - canít help - keep - mention - mind - miss - postpone - practice - quit - recall - recommend - regret - remember - resent - resist - risk - stop - suggest - tolerate - understand.
  17. List of verbs followed by infinitives:

    Verbs followed immediately by an infinitive: afford - agree - appear - arrange - ask - beg - care - claim - consent - decide - demand - deserve - expect - fail - forget - hesitate - hope - learn - manage - mean - need - offer - plan - prepare - pretend - promise - refuse - regret - remember - seem - struggle - swear - threaten - volunteer - wait -want - wish.
  18. Verbs followed by a pronoun or noun + an infinitive:

    Advise - allow - ask - beg - cause - challenge - convince - dare - encourage - expect - forbid - force - hire - instruct - invite - need - order - permit - persuade - remind - require - teach - tell - urge - want - warn.
  19. Passive and perfect forms of infinitives and gerunds:

    Passive infinitive: To be + past participle He didnít expect to be visited by friends. To be visited is a passive. Passive gerund: Being + past participle She avoided being visited by friends. To being visited is a passive. Prefect infinitive: To have + past participle They seem to have left. She seemed to have visited The event expected by perfect infinitive and perfect gerund happened before the time of the main verb. They seem: now. To have left: before. She seemed: before (yesterday). To have visited: before (before yesterday). Perfect gerund: Having + past participle She finishes having had courses. They finished having had courses. She finishes now having courses before (last week). They finished before having courses before (before last week). Perfect-passive infinitive: To have been + past participle He is fortunate to have been passed the exam. He is fortunate: now to have been passed the exam before. Perfect-passive gerund: Having been + past participle She regrets having been visited by some friends. She regrets: now having been visited by some friends before.
  20. Using gerunds or passive infinitives

    followed need: He needs to buy some books. He needs to be respected. Need is usually followed by an infinitive. She needs calling. = She needs to be called. In certain situations, a gerund may follow need. In this case, the gerund carries a passive meaning. Usually the situation involve fixing or improving something.
  21. Using a possessive to modify a gerund:

    She is worried about the fact that Frank is wasting his time. (Noun clause) = She is worried about Frankís wasting his time. (Gerund phrase) Frankís is possessive.


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